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A year later, one of Junior Seau's close friends comes forward to recount his version of the descent
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A year later, one of Junior Seau's close friends comes forward to recount his version of the descent
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OTL: Mind Control 9:12 Several research groups competed to study Junior Seau's brain after he died.
Did the NFL help pick the winner?
She has covered Super Bowls, the NBA Finals, the BCS championship game, the Stanley Cup playoffs, golf and tennis championships and more.
His wife, 75-year-old Luisa, patiently pedals an outdated stationary bicycle.
It's not the well-known gym in the middle of town on Mission Avenue, where Junior would often work out with his close friend Jay Michael Auwae, a Marine whom Junior met after retiring from a 20-year career.
But a quiet, discreet building, not an easy place to find.
And that's why Junior would come here religiously once he left behind his high-profile life in the NFL, often playing ukulele in the back with his cousin Dale Godinet.
Initially, the center opened as an after-school safe haven for teens, to keep them away from gangs, which are prevalent in Oceanside, just like in so many big cities in Southern California.
When Junior realized the gym was mostly vacant while school was in session, Godinet and Junior reached out to the Senior Center nearby.
Its doors are open now largely because of city grants.
While it is formally known as the Junior Seau Fitness Center, locals have nicknamed it Club 55.
The Junior Seau Fitness Center, known in Oceanside as "Club 55," is in danger of law wiki gambling canada />The outdated equipment needs maintenance.
The building needs repairs.
A window is broken.
There are no funds for renovations because the Seau family's patriarch is gone.
Nearly a year after Junior Seau committed suicide on May 2, 2012, Outside the Lines conducted dozens of interviews with his family and friends, including a two-hour exclusive with Auwae, who got to know Seau in early 2010, instantly bonding with the fellow Polynesian and becoming a frequent workout partner.
In hindsight, they say that Junior's actions signaled a man who was spiraling out of control, a man who wasn't prepared to leave behind the regimented life of pro football, the sport he'd been playing since he was a kid and slept with his three brothers in the Seaus' one-car garage.
The ebullient, smart, funny Junior was doing his best to hide a financial free fall and deep depression.
But hidden from everyone, including him, was the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which doctors confirmed this past January.
I'm trained to look for these signs.
I couldn't even help Junior because he was beyond our help.
They feel closer to him here sometimes than even at his own gravesite; it is a building with a cause he cared so much about and people who continue to keep it thriving.
They say they pray every day that the doors will stay open somehow.
But, sadly, there is no certainty to the gym's financial future.
Or the future Seau left behind for his friends and family.
JUNIOR SEAU QUIETLY opened the door to the massive luxury hotel suite on the Las Vegas Strip.
He walked in slowly, face ashen, his massive body hunched over as if he were grimacing in physical pain.
After dinner at a local Italian restaurant, they went back to the room, where Auwae says he begged Seau to i have a gambling problem ukulele away from the blackjack tables.
You got their money, just let it be.
You can pay some bills, get some people off your back, and just relax.
Let's go watch a show.
This particular trip to Vegas was unplanned, coming just two days before Seau was due to attend his son Tyler's Division II semifinal football game for Delta State in Cleveland, Miss.
At see more home in Oceanside with Auwae, Seau suddenly called for a private jet.
Jay Michael Auwae middle still struggles with the loss of his "Buddee", and how the friendship triggered his own descent.
Boom, next thing you know we're sitting in Las Vegas in a suite.
Auwae says he never saw Seau put down any money, assuming the casino comped the room for a high roller like Junior.
Then there was a knock at the door.
At the time I'm like, dude, this guy's crazy.
What's wrong with him?
Why would he do that?
But Seau had confided in him that his massive debts were mounting, and this trip was the first time Auwae truly understood that Junior was gambling away millions that didn't exist.
And he i have a gambling problem ukulele watch anymore.
Auwae says Junior had already called Bette Hoffman, the trustee of Seau's estate, to wire more money to the casino.
You've got to stop him.
You've got to stop him.
This ain't our world,'" Auwae says.
Buddee, I've got this.
Morning comes, the money comes and the gentlemen come back up to grab him.
He goes back down.
Instead of continuing on with Junior to Tyler's football game, Auwae says he returned to California.
Despite the disagreement, the two men remained close and did occasionally go to the casinos again.
Auwae says he often made attempts to dissuade Seau from playing such high stakes, but Junior ignored the advice, telling Auwae: "I'm a grown man.
ESPN ON THE FIELD, Junior was larger than life.
Former teammates say he surely had multiple concussions, based on the way he hit and was hit.
But they say he never admitted to being hurt or impaired when he was between the lines.
It was that way outside them as well.
The man who played with no fear was afraid of showing weakness, especially in his private life.
Yet friends and family say that looking back at his actions -- not just gambling but womanizing and partying and sleepless nights -- Junior was exhibiting symptoms of both depression and CTE, a progressive degenerative in casino gamble associated with multiple concussions and other forms of head injury.
At the time, they were noticed only in pieces, never being linked together.
No one completed the puzzle -- until it was too late.
Unlike most of Seau's closest friends, Auwae never knew Junior the pro football star.
While he had recognized Seau surfing several times in Oceanside, the two didn't grow close until February 2010, a month after Seau retired from the NFL for good.
They were zealand new gambling in addiction a reggae concert that Auwae was promoting with a friend in San Diego, and he got Junior backstage.
By many accounts from numerous people in Oceanside, including Junior's parents, the two men became nearly inseparable after that.
Of course, I'm proud of him.
And I'm Polynesian, too.
We connected on a lot of levels.
Junior's sister called him "mini-me.
Just about every morning before Auwae went to his shift on base, they went through their routine: a run along the Strand, a trip to the Mission Avenue gym where Junior would secretly add weight to Auwae's bar, making sure to win the circuit workout.
If the waves were right, then they'd head out with longboards.
If they weren't, then it was to Swami's Cafe for breakfast or to Jitters, a coffee joint, where they'd strum ukuleles with "Pops," the owner, and cousin Dale.
Seau's charm drew countless new friends into his circle after retirement, each one feeling as though he or she had known Junior forever.
Auwae knew he was referred to by some of Go here friends as a hanger-on, but in reality, he says, he wanted nothing more than to be Seau's buddy.
That was also the case with the many women Seau had relationships with after divorcing his wife in 2002.
One of his more serious girlfriends was Mary Nolan, whom he met in 2007 when she was only 22.
gambling in oahu hawaii long term to Auwae and others, it was Nolan who was by Junior's side most often during his ups and downs in Vegas.
But less than two months before Seau's impulsive gambling trip with Auwae, that relationship came to a traumatic end and may have been the first major clue that Seau's mental state was deteriorating.
Following an arrest for a domestic dispute, Seau ran his SUV off of a cliff early on the morning of Oct.
Friends and family say it may have been his first attempt at suicide.
Seau claimed that he never put a hand on Nolan, who immediately left Oceanside without filing a complaint.
After posting bail, Junior ran his car off a cliff in what many of his friends now are convinced was a first suicide attempt, though Seau understood australian gambling companies can insisted he simply fell asleep at the wheel and the police agreed.
His ex-wife Gina and their three children, Sydney, Jake and Hunter, and Junior's oldest son, Tyler, picked Seau up from the hospital and brought him to their house for a few days to heal.
When he had trouble sleeping and Gina didn't have Ambien, Junior called Auwae, who says he came to pick up his friend and drive him home.
The media attention surrounding the arrest and crash was enormous, and Auwae, who had left Hawaii after hearing the news, says he stayed with Junior inside his home for several weeks, ordering in food and watching football.
Seau, bandaged and bruised, refused to discuss the cause or reason for the crash, yet Auwae didn't push.
He was accustomed to comforting injured servicemen through his work with Wounded Warriors.
Players around the NFL confirm that Junior was a heavy drinker, but Go here says it was about that time Seau's drinking worsened and he was taking Ambien along with it to sleep.
Auwae was as well.
His own marriage was struggling and he, too, was in a raw emotional state.
Initially, Auwae says, he was swept up in what appeared to be Seau's zeal for life, the jetsetting, the drinking, the gambling and the women.
But running with Seau put a growing strain on Auwae's relationship with his wife and their three children.
By September 2011, he even contemplated suicide; Junior convinced him otherwise.
If Seau had suicidal thoughts, he never expressed them.
Meanwhile, Auwae and others say that they noticed his memory beginning to fade, unable to remember simple things, like his daughter Sydney's volleyball game, or plans for lunch, to even the most mundane things like the day of the week.
It was almost common for me to see that.
But I'm not thinking that way.
Nobody's thinking that way.
Post-retirement therapy is often advised for professional athletes to cope with the loss of such an intense and integral part of their lives.
But Seau never reached out for help, just like he always chose to play through pain.
Following retirement, he hosted a reality sports series on Versus that was canceled after just one season, and he failed to secure an NFL broadcasting job even at the regional level.
Instead, he watched his former peers on TV, still part of the game he gravely missed.
Hoffman, a 73-year-old professional fundraiser and the trustee of Seau's estate, discussed Seau in an Outside the Lines interview for a different story.
She said that Junior always believed he had to take care of the people around him.
His family was massive and continually would go to his restaurant, Seau's, expecting to eat and drink for free.
I would notice some of the expenses from restaurants and I'd say, 'Oh my I have a gambling problem ukulele, Junior.
How could you have spent this much money?
Yet even a week and a half before Seau died, there was nothing to indicate, according to Auwae and other friends, that Junior was thinking about ending his life.
Auwae and Junior had driven to a charity golf tournament in Fontana, Calif.
He had a trip to Hawaii tentatively scheduled with his kids.
Mother's Day was coming up.
He also had recently become a grandfather, when his then-22-year-old son Tyler and Tyler's girlfriend had a daughter.
Former teammate Mark Walczak was coming to stay the last weekend of April 2012 with Junior to celebrate Walczak's 50th birthday.
The two men had been roommates when Junior moved to San Diego for his rookie year in 1990.
Walczak told Outside the Lines that Junior seemed in good spirits at the thought of a weekend with old friends, just click for source they spent Friday night, April 27, 2012, with Chargers team doctor David Chao and a few friends in Del Mar, about 20 miles from Oceanside.
When they returned to Junior's house, there was an electrical outage in the neighborhood.
They lit candles and talked long into the night.
Auwae joined Junior and Walczak and they spent much of the next day on Seau's porch overlooking the ocean, playing music and grilling barbecue.
It was then that Auwae said he found an envelope with a letter inside by the kitchen sink that had "Do not read" written on it.
Then he grabs the paper and says, 'Have a seat.
Junior had learned it on the ukulele.
The country song is about a man attempting to reconcile his sinning ways and his faith.
Auwae thinks now that the letter might have been an attempt at a suicide note, but at the time thought nothing of it.
By then, Auwae says he was fully aware that Seau's financial issues were far worse than they'd been on that December 2010 night in Vegas.
Junior would likely have to close the doors on his restaurant, Seau's, because he couldn't pay for the necessary upgrades or the lease.
And that meant laying off hundreds of employees, a craps table his own son Tyler, who worked there.
That Saturday night after the barbecue, Junior, Walczak and Auwae made plans go to a pricey restaurant, 333 Pacific, to have drinks.
But I was like, 'Oh, Buddee, cool.
I'm going to pay it.
The pretty redhead was living in Dallas but came to San Diego to attend a baby shower for her sister-in-law.
Later that night, Noderer and Walczak were waiting on Junior to return from meeting other friends for a birthday drink at a nearby bar.
Walczak wanted to say goodbye to Junior before driving back to Phoenix.
But by 10 p.
I'm heading back now.
On Monday, April 30, 2012, Junior played in former Raider Tim Brown's golf tournament in nearby Dana Point and was paired with former 49er Jerry Rice, who later told reporters that Seau seemed upbeat; he was also posing for photos and talking about his children and the upcoming NFL draft.
But sometime after 7:45 a.
Wednesday morning, May 2, according to the coroner's report, Junior walked into a guest bedroom with a.
Police say there was an impression of the barrel on his chest, meaning there was no hesitation mark, which signals fear, uncertainty or foul play.
A half-bottle of water was found on the nightstand next i have a gambling problem ukulele the bed.
The gun was next to his right hand.
Noderer, who had gone to work out, was the first person to find Seau.
Junior's mother, Luisa, in the driveway of her son's home on the morning of May 2, begging him to come back.
Auwae, who was on base, got the call from cousin Dale and rushed to Seau's home.
Junior was already on a gurney in a body bag.
Family members were standing around in the garage stunned and weeping hysterically.
Thank you very much.
Auwae has since apologized to the man, having learned more about CTE and how it leads to compulsive behavior.
U-T San Diego also reported that his gambling debts have been https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-in-louisiana-on-water.html />He had too many things planned.
He had too many people that loved him.
They all thought he was larger than life, on and off the field.
A portrait of him, fashioned out of letters, was meaning gambling ats in to Jitters, the coffee shop that was often filled with the sounds of Junior's ukulele.
The words spell out his favorite phrase, "Work for today, plan for tomorrow, pray for the rest.
They planned a small, private ceremony, with T-shirts bearing one of Junior's favorite scriptures for the May 2 anniversary of his death, and then a backyard barbecue at their house, just like those Junior gambling pools at work to throw impromptu and they loved to host.
But now the kids are starting to pick up their ukuleles again, remembering songs Junior taught them.
But in light of the CTE diagnosis, Auwae says he believes it's important for others to understand the insidiousness of the disease and how it can ruin lives.
Looking back, he recalls the two of them watching coverage of former NFL opinion gambling casinos nashville tn not Dave Duerson's suicide.
Duerson shot himself in the chest and left a suicide note, requesting that his brain be studied.
Seau turned to Auwae and compared Duerson's emotional and physical struggles to those of the Wounded Warriors who Auwae continues to help.
At the same time, he also wrestles with how much Junior's suicide was just a way out for him, a solution to a myriad of problems that may or may not have been caused or blurred by CTE.
All he really knows for certain, he says, is how 2½ years with Junior changed his own life.
No charges were ever filed.
There's this tug of war.
Still, he will be there for the May 2 ceremony, ukulele in hand.
The status of the Junior Seau Foundation is believed to be stable because its funds are separate from Seau's estate, while the status of Seau's estate remains unknown.
By law a person's estate should be revealed within a year of his or her death, but it is unclear what, if anything, there will be to split.
Some assets have been sold.
A family source told OTL that Pittsburgh Steelers safety Troy Polamalu, who grew up near Junior and went to USC and considers himself family, paid a good portion of Seau's funeral service and for his grave plot in the Eternal Hills Memorial Park, a prime spot near the main path where Junior's parents also will be buried.
The family visits often, as does Auwae.
One day in early spring, before the headstone was placed, he went and strummed "Earth Angel," one of Junior's favorite songs.
Seniors continue to trickle into the Junior Seau Center to rehabilitate injuries and exercise at a low cost, but Club 55 will shut its doors if it doesn't receive funds.
A giant "Say Ow" banner hangs https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-industry-in-russia.html the wall behind the strength machines.
It was the name of Seau's line of activewear that ended as yet another failed business venture.
Seau's mother sits at one of the machines and breaks into tears at the thought that it's been a year since her son took his own life.
She can't bear that the Junior Seau Fitness Center, which meant so much to Junior, could soon be gone.
His soul lives within these walls.

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A year later, one of Junior Seau's close friends comes forward to recount his version of the descent
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OTL: Mind Control 9:12 Several research groups competed to study Junior Seau's brain after he died.
Did the NFL help pick the winner?
She has covered Super Bowls, the NBA Finals, the BCS championship game, the Stanley Cup playoffs, golf and tennis championships and more.
His wife, 75-year-old Luisa, patiently pedals an outdated stationary bicycle.
It's not the well-known gym in the middle of town on Mission Avenue, where Junior would often work out with his close friend Jay Michael Auwae, a Marine whom Junior met after retiring from a 20-year career.
But a quiet, discreet building, not an easy place to find.
And that's why Junior would come here religiously once he left behind his high-profile life in the NFL, often playing ukulele in the back with his cousin Dale Godinet.
Initially, the center opened as an after-school safe haven https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-in-oahu-hawaii-long-term.html teens, to keep them away from gangs, which are prevalent in Oceanside, just like in so many big cities in Southern California.
When Junior realized the gym was mostly vacant while school was in session, Godinet and Junior reached out to the Senior Center nearby.
Its doors are open now largely because of city grants.
While it is formally known as the Junior Seau Fitness Center, locals have nicknamed it Club 55.
The Junior Seau Fitness Center, known in Oceanside as "Club 55," is in danger of closing.
The outdated equipment needs maintenance.
The building needs repairs.
A window is broken.
There are no funds for renovations because the Seau family's patriarch is gone.
Nearly a year after Junior Seau committed suicide on May 2, 2012, Outside the Lines conducted dozens of interviews with his family and friends, including a two-hour exclusive with Auwae, who got to know Seau in early 2010, instantly bonding with the fellow Polynesian and becoming a frequent workout partner.
In hindsight, they say that Junior's actions signaled a man who was spiraling out of control, a man who wasn't prepared to leave behind the regimented life of pro football, the sport he'd been playing since he was a kid and slept with his three brothers in the Seaus' one-car garage.
The ebullient, smart, funny Junior was doing his best to hide a financial free fall and deep depression.
But hidden from everyone, including him, was the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which doctors confirmed this past January.
I'm trained to this web page for these signs.
I couldn't even help Junior because he was beyond our help.
They feel closer to him here sometimes than even at his own gravesite; it is a building with a cause he https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-news-article.html so much about and people who continue to keep it thriving.
They say they pray every day that the doors will stay open somehow.
But, sadly, there is no certainty to the gym's financial future.
Or the future Seau left behind for his friends and family.
JUNIOR SEAU QUIETLY opened the door to the massive luxury hotel suite on the Las Vegas Strip.
He walked in slowly, face ashen, his massive body hunched over as if he were grimacing in physical pain.
After dinner at a local Italian restaurant, they went back to the room, where Auwae says he begged Seau to stay away from the blackjack tables.
You got their money, just let it be.
You can pay some bills, get some people off your back, and just relax.
Let's go watch a show.
This particular trip to Vegas was unplanned, coming just two days before Seau was due to attend his son Tyler's Division II semifinal football game for Delta State in Cleveland, Miss.
At his home in Oceanside with Auwae, Seau suddenly called for a private jet.
Jay Michael Auwae middle still struggles with the loss of his "Buddee", and how the friendship triggered his own descent.
Boom, next thing you know we're sitting in Las Vegas in a suite.
Auwae says he never saw Seau put down any money, assuming the casino comped the room for a high roller like Junior.
Then there was a knock at the door.
At the time I'm like, dude, this guy's crazy.
What's wrong with him?
Why would he do that?
But Seau had confided in him that his massive debts were mounting, and this trip was the first time Auwae truly understood that Junior was gambling away millions that didn't exist.
And he couldn't watch anymore.
Auwae says Junior had already called Bette Hoffman, the trustee of Seau's estate, to wire more money to the casino.
You've got to stop him.
You've got to stop him.
This ain't our world,'" Auwae says.
Buddee, I've got this.
Morning comes, the money comes and the gentlemen come back up to grab him.
He goes back down.
Instead of continuing on with Junior to Tyler's football game, Auwae says he returned to California.
Despite the disagreement, the two men remained close and did occasionally go to the casinos again.
Auwae says he often made attempts to dissuade Seau from playing such high stakes, but Junior ignored the advice, telling Auwae: "I'm a grown man.
ESPN ON THE FIELD, Junior was larger than life.
Former teammates say he surely had multiple concussions, based on the way he hit and was hit.
But they say he never admitted to being hurt or impaired when he was between the lines.
It was i have a gambling problem ukulele way outside them as well.
The man who played with no fear was afraid of showing weakness, especially in his private life.
Yet friends and family say that looking back at his actions -- not just gambling but womanizing and partying and sleepless nights -- Junior was exhibiting symptoms of both depression and CTE, a progressive degenerative disease associated with multiple concussions and other forms of head injury.
At the time, they were noticed only in pieces, never being linked together.
No one completed the puzzle -- until it was too late.
Unlike most of Seau's closest friends, Auwae never knew Junior the pro football star.
While he had recognized Seau surfing several times in Oceanside, the two didn't grow close until February 2010, a month after Seau retired from the NFL for good.
They were at a reggae concert that Auwae was promoting with a friend in San Diego, and he got Junior backstage.
By many accounts from numerous people in Oceanside, including Junior's parents, the two men became nearly inseparable after that.
Of course, I'm proud of him.
And I'm Polynesian, too.
We connected on a lot of levels.
Junior's sister called him "mini-me.
Just about every morning before Auwae went to his shift on legalized gambling in ohio, they went through their routine: a run along the Strand, a trip to the Mission Avenue gym where Junior would secretly add weight to Auwae's bar, making sure to win the circuit workout.
If the waves were right, then they'd head out with longboards.
If they weren't, then it was to Swami's Cafe for breakfast or to Jitters, a coffee joint, where they'd strum ukuleles with "Pops," the owner, and cousin Dale.
Seau's charm drew countless new friends into his circle after retirement, each one feeling as though he or she had known Junior forever.
Auwae knew he was referred to by some of Seau's friends as a hanger-on, but in reality, he says, he wanted nothing more than to be Seau's buddy.
That was also the case with the many women Seau had relationships with after divorcing his wife in 2002.
One of i have a gambling problem ukulele more serious girlfriends was Mary Nolan, whom he met in 2007 when she was only 22.
According to Auwae and others, it was Nolan who was by Junior's side most often during his ups and downs in Vegas.
But less than two months before Seau's impulsive gambling trip with Auwae, that relationship came to a traumatic end and may have been the first major clue that Seau's mental state was deteriorating.
Following an arrest for a domestic dispute, Seau ran his SUV off of a cliff early on i have a gambling problem ukulele morning of Oct.
Friends and family say it may have been his first attempt at suicide.
Seau claimed that he never put a hand on Nolan, who immediately left I have a gambling problem ukulele without filing a complaint.
After posting bail, Junior ran his car off a cliff in what many of his friends now are convinced was a first suicide attempt, though Seau always insisted he simply fell asleep at the wheel and the police agreed.
His ex-wife Gina and their three children, Sydney, Jake and Hunter, and Junior's oldest son, Tyler, picked Seau up from the hospital and brought him to their house for a few days to heal.
When he had trouble sleeping and Gina didn't have Ambien, Junior called Auwae, who says he came to pick up his friend and drive him home.
The media attention surrounding the arrest and crash was enormous, and Auwae, who had left Hawaii after hearing the news, says he stayed with Junior inside his home for several weeks, ordering in food and watching football.
Seau, bandaged and bruised, refused to discuss the cause or reason for the crash, yet Auwae didn't push.
He was accustomed to comforting injured servicemen through his work with Wounded Warriors.
Players around the NFL confirm that Junior was a heavy drinker, but Auwae says it was about that time Seau's drinking worsened and he was taking Ambien along with it to sleep.
Auwae was as well.
His own marriage was struggling and he, too, was in a raw emotional state.
Initially, Auwae says, he was swept up in what appeared to be Seau's zeal for life, the jetsetting, the drinking, the gambling and the women.
But running with Seau put a growing strain on Auwae's relationship with his wife and their three children.
By September 2011, he even contemplated suicide; Junior convinced him otherwise.
If Seau had suicidal thoughts, he never expressed them.
Meanwhile, Auwae and others say that they noticed his memory beginning to fade, unable to remember simple things, like his daughter Sydney's volleyball game, or plans for lunch, to even the most mundane things like the day of the week.
It was almost common for me to see that.
But I'm not thinking that way.
Nobody's thinking that way.
Post-retirement therapy is often advised for professional athletes to cope with the loss of such an intense and integral part of their lives.
But Seau never reached out for help, just like he always chose to play through pain.
Following retirement, he hosted a reality sports series on Versus that was canceled after just one season, and he failed to secure an NFL broadcasting job even at the regional level.
Instead, he watched his former peers on TV, still part of the game he gravely missed.
Hoffman, a 73-year-old professional fundraiser and the trustee of Seau's estate, discussed Seau in an Outside the Lines interview for a different story.
She said that Junior always believed he had to take care of the people around him.
His family was massive and continually would go to his restaurant, Seau's, expecting to eat and drink for free.
I would notice some of the expenses from restaurants and I'd say, 'Oh my God, Junior.
How could you have spent this much money?
Yet even a week and a half before Seau died, there was nothing to indicate, according to Auwae and other friends, that Junior was thinking about ending his life.
Auwae and Junior had driven to a charity golf tournament in Fontana, Calif.
He had a trip to Hawaii tentatively scheduled with his kids.
Mother's Day was coming up.
He also had recently become a grandfather, when his then-22-year-old son Tyler and Tyler's girlfriend had a daughter.
Former teammate Mark Walczak was coming to stay the last weekend of April 2012 with Junior to celebrate Walczak's 50th birthday.
The two men had been roommates when Junior moved to San Diego for his rookie year in 1990.
Walczak told Outside the Lines that Junior seemed in good spirits at the thought of a weekend with old friends, and they spent Friday night, April 27, 2012, with Chargers team doctor David Chao and a few friends in Del Mar, about 20 miles from Oceanside.
When they returned to Junior's house, there was an electrical outage in the neighborhood.
They lit candles and talked long into the night.
Auwae joined Junior and Walczak and they spent much of the next day on Seau's porch overlooking the ocean, playing music and grilling barbecue.
It was then that Auwae said he found an envelope with a letter inside by the kitchen sink that had "Do not read" written on it.
Then he grabs the paper and says, 'Have a seat.
Junior had learned it on the ukulele.
The country song is about a man attempting to reconcile his sinning ways and his faith.
Auwae thinks now that the letter might have been an attempt at a suicide note, but at the time thought nothing of it.
By then, Auwae says he was fully aware that Seau's financial issues were far worse than they'd been on that December 2010 night in Vegas.
Junior would likely have to close the doors on his restaurant, Seau's, because he couldn't pay for the necessary upgrades or the lease.
And that meant laying off hundreds of employees, including his own son Tyler, who worked there.
That Saturday night after the barbecue, Junior, Walczak and Auwae made plans go to a pricey restaurant, 333 Pacific, to have drinks.
But I was like, 'Oh, Buddee, cool.
I'm going to pay it.
The pretty redhead was living in Dallas but came to San Diego to attend a baby shower for her sister-in-law.
Later that night, Noderer and Walczak were waiting on Junior to return from meeting other friends for a birthday drink at a nearby bar.
Walczak wanted to say goodbye to Junior before driving back to Phoenix.
But by 10 p.
I'm heading back now.
On Monday, April 30, 2012, Junior played in former Raider Tim Brown's golf tournament in nearby Dana Point and was paired with former 49er Jerry Rice, who later told reporters that Seau seemed upbeat; he was also posing for photos and talking about his children and the upcoming NFL draft.
But sometime after 7:45 a.
Wednesday morning, May 2, according to the coroner's report, Junior walked into a guest bedroom with a.
Police say there was an impression of the barrel on his chest, meaning there was no hesitation mark, which signals fear, uncertainty or foul play.
A half-bottle of water was found on the nightstand next to the bed.
The gun was next to his right hand.
Noderer, who had gone to work out, was the first person to find Seau.
Junior's mother, Luisa, in the driveway of her son's home on the morning of May 2, begging him to come back.
Auwae, who was on base, got the call from cousin Dale and rushed to Seau's home.
Junior was already on a gurney in a body bag.
Family members were standing around in the garage stunned and weeping hysterically.
Thank you very much.
Auwae has since apologized to the man, having learned more about CTE and how it leads to compulsive behavior.
He says Junior's gambling debts in Las Vegas and in California have been "washed away.
U-T San Diego also reported that his gambling debts have been forgiven.
He had too many things planned.
He had too many people that loved him.
They all thought he was larger than life, on and off the field.
A portrait of him, fashioned out of letters, was donated to Jitters, the coffee shop that was often filled with the sounds of Junior's ukulele.
The words spell gambling tax indiana state his favorite phrase, "Work for today, plan for tomorrow, pray for the rest.
They planned a small, private ceremony, with T-shirts bearing one of Junior's favorite scriptures for the May 2 anniversary of gambling permit death, and then a backyard barbecue at their house, just like those Junior loved to throw impromptu and they loved to host.
But now the kids are starting to pick up their ukuleles again, remembering songs Junior taught them.
But in light of the CTE diagnosis, Auwae says he believes it's important for others to understand the insidiousness of the disease and how it can ruin lives.
Looking back, he recalls the two of them watching coverage of former NFL safety Dave Duerson's suicide.
Duerson shot himself in the chest and left a suicide note, requesting that his brain be studied.
Seau turned to Auwae and compared Duerson's emotional and physical struggles to those of the Wounded Warriors who Auwae continues to help.
At the same time, he also wrestles with how much Junior's suicide was just a way out for him, a solution to a myriad of problems that may or may not have been caused or blurred by CTE.
All he really knows for certain, he says, is how 2½ years with Junior changed his own life.
No charges were ever filed.
There's this tug of war.
Still, he will be there for the May 2 ceremony, ukulele in hand.
The status of the Junior Seau Foundation is believed to be stable because its funds are separate from Seau's estate, while the status of Seau's estate remains unknown.
By law a person's estate should be revealed within a year of his or her death, but it is unclear what, if anything, there will be to split.
Some assets have been sold.
A family source told OTL that Pittsburgh Steelers safety Troy Polamalu, who grew up near Junior and went to USC and considers himself family, paid a good portion of Seau's funeral service and for his grave plot in the Eternal Hills Memorial Park, a prime spot near the main path where Junior's parents also will be buried.
The family visits often, as does Auwae.
One day in early spring, before the headstone was placed, he went and strummed "Earth Angel," one of Junior's favorite songs.
Seniors continue to trickle into the Junior Seau Center to rehabilitate injuries and exercise at a low cost, but Club 55 will shut its doors if it doesn't receive funds.
A giant "Say Ow" banner hangs on the wall behind the strength machines.
It was the name of Seau's line of activewear that ended as yet another failed business venture.
Seau's mother sits at one of the machines and breaks into tears at the thought that it's been a year since her son took his own life.
She can't bear that the Junior Seau Fitness Center, which meant so much to Junior, could soon be gone.
His soul lives within these walls.

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A conversation with Jason: recovering from problem gambling

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HAND GRENADE UKULELE by The Movielife @ allo-hebergeur.com
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OTL: Mind Control 9:12 Several research groups competed to study Junior Seau's brain after he died.
Did the Learn more here help pick the winner?
She has covered Super Bowls, the NBA Finals, the BCS championship game, the Stanley Cup playoffs, golf and tennis championships and more.
His wife, 75-year-old Luisa, patiently pedals an outdated stationary bicycle.
It's not the well-known gym in the middle of town on Mission Avenue, where Junior would often work out with his close friend Jay Michael Auwae, a Marine whom Junior met after retiring from a 20-year career.
But a quiet, discreet building, not an easy place to find.
And that's why Junior would come here religiously once he left behind his high-profile life in the Old gambling year oklahoma 6, often playing ukulele in the back with his cousin Dale Godinet.
Initially, the center opened as an after-school safe haven for teens, to keep them away from gangs, which are prevalent in Oceanside, just like in so many big cities in Southern California.
When Junior realized the gym was mostly vacant while school was in session, Godinet and Junior reached out to the Senior Center nearby.
Its doors are open now largely because of city grants.
While it is formally known as the Junior Seau Fitness Center, locals have nicknamed it Club 55.
The Junior Seau Fitness Center, known in Oceanside as "Club 55," is in danger of closing.
The outdated equipment needs maintenance.
The building needs repairs.
A window is broken.
There are no funds for renovations because the Seau family's patriarch is gone.
Nearly a year after Junior Seau committed suicide on May 2, 2012, Outside the Lines conducted dozens of interviews with his family and friends, including a two-hour exclusive with Auwae, who got to know Seau in early 2010, instantly bonding with the fellow Polynesian and becoming a frequent workout partner.
In hindsight, they say that Junior's actions signaled a man who was spiraling out of control, a man who wasn't prepared to leave behind the regimented life of pro football, the sport he'd been this web page since he was a kid and slept with his three brothers in the Seaus' one-car garage.
The ebullient, smart, funny Junior was doing his best to hide a financial free fall and deep depression.
But hidden from everyone, including him, was the degenerative brain disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which doctors confirmed this past January.
I'm trained to look for these signs.
I couldn't even help Junior because he was beyond our help.
They feel closer to him here sometimes than even at his own gravesite; it is a building with a cause he cared so much about and people who continue to keep it thriving.
They say they pray every day that the doors will stay open somehow.
But, sadly, there is no certainty to the gym's financial future.
Or the future Seau left behind for his friends and family.
JUNIOR SEAU QUIETLY opened the door to the massive luxury hotel suite on the Las Vegas Strip.
He walked in slowly, face ashen, his massive body hunched over as if he were grimacing in physical pain.
After dinner at a local Italian restaurant, they went back to the room, where Auwae says he begged Seau to stay away from the blackjack tables.
You got their money, just let it be.
You can pay some bills, get some people off your back, and just relax.
Let's go watch a show.
This particular trip to Vegas was unplanned, coming i have a gambling problem ukulele two days before Seau was due to attend his son Tyler's Division II semifinal football game for Delta State in Cleveland, Miss.
At his home in Oceanside with Auwae, Seau suddenly called for a private jet.
Jay Michael Auwae middle still struggles with the loss of his "Buddee", and how the friendship triggered his own descent.
Boom, next thing you know we're sitting in Las Vegas in a suite.
Auwae says he never saw Seau put down any money, assuming the casino comped the room for a high roller like Junior.
Then there was a knock at the door.
At the time I'm like, dude, this guy's crazy.
What's wrong with him?
Why would he do that?
But Seau had confided in him that his massive debts were mounting, and this trip was the first time Auwae truly understood that Junior was gambling away millions that didn't exist.
And he couldn't watch anymore.
Auwae says Junior had already called Bette Hoffman, the trustee of Seau's estate, to wire more money to the casino.
You've got to stop him.
You've got to stop him.
This ain't our world,'" Auwae says.
Buddee, I've got this.
Morning comes, the money comes and the gentlemen come back up to grab him.
He goes back down.
Instead of continuing on with Junior to Tyler's football game, Auwae says he returned to California.
Despite the disagreement, the two men remained close and did occasionally go to the casinos again.
Auwae says he often made attempts to dissuade Seau from playing such high stakes, but Junior ignored the advice, telling Auwae: "I'm a grown man.
ESPN ON THE FIELD, Junior was larger than life.
Former teammates say he surely had multiple concussions, based on the way he hit and was hit.
But they say he never admitted to being hurt or impaired when he was between the lines.
The man who played with no fear was afraid of showing weakness, especially in his private life.
Yet friends and family say that looking back at his actions -- not just gambling but womanizing and partying and sleepless nights -- Junior was exhibiting symptoms of both depression and CTE, a progressive degenerative disease associated with multiple concussions and other forms of head injury.
At the time, they were noticed only in pieces, never being linked together.
No one completed the puzzle -- until it was too late.
Unlike most of Seau's closest friends, Auwae never knew Junior the pro football star.
While he had recognized Seau surfing several times in Oceanside, the two didn't grow close until February 2010, a month after Seau retired from the NFL for good.
They were at a reggae concert that Auwae was promoting with a friend in San Diego, and he got Junior backstage.
By many accounts from numerous people in Oceanside, including Junior's parents, the two men became nearly inseparable after that.
Of course, I'm proud of him.
And I'm Polynesian, too.
We connected on a lot of levels.
Junior's sister called him "mini-me.
Just about every morning before Auwae went to his shift on base, they went through their routine: a run along the Strand, a trip to the Mission Avenue gym where Junior would secretly add weight to Auwae's bar, making sure to win the circuit workout.
If the waves were right, then they'd head out with longboards.
If they weren't, then it was to Swami's Cafe for breakfast or to Jitters, a coffee joint, where they'd strum ukuleles with "Pops," the owner, and cousin Dale.
Seau's charm drew countless new friends into his circle after retirement, each one feeling as though he or she had known Junior forever.
Auwae knew he was referred to by some of Seau's friends as a hanger-on, but in reality, he says, he wanted nothing more than to be Seau's buddy.
That was also the case with the many women Seau had relationships with after divorcing his wife in 2002.
One of his more serious girlfriends was Mary Nolan, whom he met in 2007 when she was only 22.
According to Auwae and others, it was Nolan who was by Junior's side most often during his ups and downs in Vegas.
But less than two months before Seau's impulsive gambling trip with Auwae, that relationship came to a traumatic end and may have been the first major clue i have a gambling problem ukulele Seau's mental state was deteriorating.
Following an arrest for a domestic dispute, Seau ran his SUV off of a cliff early on the morning of Oct.
Friends and family say it may have been his first attempt at suicide.
Seau claimed that he never put a hand hope, legalizing casino gambling in florida precisely Nolan, who immediately left Oceanside without filing a complaint.
After posting bail, Junior ran his car off a cliff in what many of his friends now are convinced was a first suicide attempt, though Seau always insisted he simply fell asleep at the wheel and the police agreed.
His ex-wife Gina and their three children, Sydney, Jake and Hunter, and Junior's oldest son, Tyler, picked Seau up from the hospital and brought him to their house for a few days to heal.
When he had trouble sleeping and Gina didn't have Ambien, Junior called Auwae, who says he came to pick up his friend and drive him home.
The media attention surrounding the arrest and crash was enormous, and Auwae, who had left Hawaii after hearing the news, says he stayed with Junior inside his home for several weeks, ordering in food and watching football.
Seau, bandaged and bruised, refused to discuss the cause or reason for the crash, yet Auwae didn't push.
He was accustomed to comforting injured servicemen through his work with Wounded Warriors.
Players around the NFL confirm that Junior was a heavy drinker, but Auwae says it was about that time Seau's drinking worsened and he was taking Ambien along with click to see more to sleep.
Auwae was as well.
His own marriage was struggling and he, too, was in a raw emotional state.
Initially, Auwae says, he was swept up in what appeared to be Seau's zeal for life, the jetsetting, the drinking, the gambling and the women.
But running with Seau put a growing strain on Auwae's relationship with his wife and their three children.
By September 2011, he even contemplated suicide; Junior convinced him otherwise.
If Seau had suicidal thoughts, he never expressed them.
Meanwhile, Auwae and i have a gambling problem ukulele say that they noticed his memory beginning to fade, unable to remember simple things, like his daughter Sydney's volleyball game, or plans for lunch, to even the most mundane things like the day of the week.
It was almost common for me to see that.
But I'm not thinking that way.
Nobody's thinking that way.
Post-retirement therapy is often important mississippi casino gambling age would for professional athletes i have a gambling problem ukulele cope with the loss of such an intense and integral part of their lives.
But Seau never reached out for help, just like he always chose to play through pain.
Following retirement, he hosted a reality sports series on Versus that was canceled after just one season, and he failed to secure an NFL broadcasting job even at the regional level.
Instead, he watched his former peers on TV, still part of the game he gravely missed.
Hoffman, a 73-year-old professional fundraiser and the trustee of Seau's estate, discussed Seau in an Outside the Lines interview for a gambling legal in hawaii is story.
She said that Junior always believed he had to take care of the people around him.
His family was massive and continually would go to his restaurant, Seau's, expecting to eat and drink for free.
I would notice some of the expenses from restaurants and I'd say, 'Oh my God, Junior.
How could you have spent this much money?
Yet even a week and a half before Seau died, there was nothing to indicate, according to Auwae and other friends, that Junior was thinking about ending his life.
Auwae and Junior had driven to a charity golf tournament in Fontana, Calif.
He had a trip to Hawaii tentatively scheduled with his kids.
Mother's Day was coming up.
He also had recently become a grandfather, when his then-22-year-old son Tyler and Tyler's girlfriend had a daughter.
Former teammate Mark Walczak was coming to stay the last weekend of April 2012 with Junior to celebrate Walczak's 50th birthday.
The two men had been roommates when Junior moved to San Diego for his rookie year in 1990.
Walczak told Outside the Lines that Junior seemed in good spirits at the thought of a weekend with old friends, and they spent Friday night, April 27, 2012, with Chargers team doctor David Chao and a few friends in Del Mar, about 20 miles from Oceanside.
When they returned to Junior's house, there was an electrical outage in the neighborhood.
They lit candles and talked long into the night.
Auwae joined Junior and Walczak and they spent much of the next day on Seau's porch overlooking the ocean, playing music and grilling barbecue.
It was then that Auwae said he found an envelope with a letter inside by the kitchen sink that had "Do not read" written on it.
Then he grabs the paper and says, 'Have a seat.
Junior had learned it on the ukulele.
The country song is about a man attempting to reconcile his sinning ways and his faith.
Auwae thinks now that the letter might have been an attempt at a suicide note, but at the time thought nothing of it.
By then, Auwae says he was fully aware that Seau's financial issues were far worse than they'd been on that December 2010 night in Vegas.
Junior would likely have to close the doors on his restaurant, Seau's, because he couldn't pay for the necessary upgrades or the lease.
And that meant laying off hundreds of employees, including his own son Tyler, who worked there.
That Saturday night after the barbecue, Junior, Walczak and Auwae made plans go to a pricey restaurant, 333 Pacific, to have drinks.
But I i have a gambling problem ukulele like, 'Oh, Buddee, cool.
I'm going to pay it.
The pretty redhead was living in Dallas but came to San Diego to attend a baby shower for her sister-in-law.
Later that night, Noderer and Walczak were waiting on Junior to return from meeting other friends for a birthday drink at a nearby bar.
Walczak wanted to say goodbye to Junior before driving back to Phoenix.
But by 10 p.
I'm heading back now.
to parents gambling addicted Monday, April 30, 2012, Junior played in former Raider Tim Brown's golf tournament in nearby Dana Point and was paired with former 49er Jerry Rice, who later told reporters that Seau seemed upbeat; he was also posing for photos and talking about his children and the upcoming NFL draft.
But sometime after 7:45 a.
Wednesday morning, May 2, according to the coroner's report, Junior walked into a guest bedroom with a.
Police say there was an click of the barrel on his chest, meaning there was no hesitation mark, which signals fear, uncertainty or foul play.
A half-bottle of water was found on the nightstand next to the bed.
The gun was next to his right hand.
Noderer, who had gone to work out, was the first person to find Seau.
Junior's mother, Luisa, in the driveway of her son's home on the morning of May 2, begging him to come back.
Auwae, who was on base, got the call from cousin Dale and rushed to Seau's home.
Junior was already on a gurney in a body bag.
Family members were standing around in the garage stunned and weeping hysterically.
Thank you very much.
Auwae has since apologized to the man, having learned more about CTE and how it leads to compulsive behavior.
He says Junior's gambling debts in Las Vegas and in California have been "washed away.
U-T San Diego also reported that his gambling debts have been forgiven.
He had too many things planned.
He had too many people that loved him.
They all thought he was larger than life, on and off the field.
A portrait of him, fashioned out of letters, was donated to Jitters, the coffee shop that was often filled are gambling in woodstock ontario kijiji regret the sounds of Junior's ukulele.
The words spell out his favorite phrase, "Work for today, plan for tomorrow, pray for the rest.
They planned a small, private ceremony, with T-shirts bearing one of Junior's favorite scriptures for the May 2 anniversary of his death, and then a backyard barbecue at their house, just like those Junior loved to throw impromptu and they loved to host.
But now the kids are starting to pick up their ukuleles again, remembering songs Junior taught them.
But in light of the CTE diagnosis, Auwae says he believes it's important for others to understand the insidiousness of the disease and how it can ruin lives.
Looking back, he recalls the two of them watching coverage of former NFL safety Dave Duerson's suicide.
Duerson shot himself in the chest and left a suicide note, requesting that his brain be studied.
Seau turned to Auwae and compared Duerson's emotional and physical struggles to those of the Wounded Warriors who Auwae continues to help.
At the same time, he also wrestles with how much Junior's suicide was just a way out for him, a solution to a myriad of problems that may or may not have been caused or blurred by CTE.
All he really knows for certain, he says, is how 2½ years with Junior changed his own life.
No charges read more ever filed.
There's this tug of war.
Still, he will be there for the May 2 ceremony, ukulele in hand.
The status of the Junior Seau Foundation is believed to be stable because its funds are separate from Seau's estate, while the status of Seau's estate remains unknown.
By law a person's estate should be revealed within a year of his or her death, but it is unclear what, if anything, there will be to split.
Some assets have been sold.
A family source told OTL that Pittsburgh Steelers safety Troy Polamalu, who grew up near Junior and went to USC and considers himself family, paid a good portion of Seau's funeral service and for his grave plot in the Eternal Hills Memorial Park, a prime spot near the main path where Junior's parents also will be buried.
The family visits often, as does Auwae.
One day in early spring, before the headstone was placed, he went and strummed "Earth Angel," one of Junior's favorite songs.
Seniors continue to trickle into the Junior Seau Center to i have a gambling problem ukulele injuries and exercise at a low cost, but Club 55 will shut its doors if it doesn't receive funds.
A giant "Say Ow" banner hangs on the wall behind the strength machines.
It was the name of Seau's line of activewear that ended as yet another failed business venture.
Seau's mother sits at one of the machines and breaks into tears at the thought that it's been a year since her son took his own life.
She can't bear that the Junior Seau Fitness Center, which meant so much to Junior, could soon be gone.
His soul lives within these walls.

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"The U.S. On Tilt: Why the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act I" by Gerd Alexander
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Frontiers | The Role of Prospection in Steep Temporal Reward Discounting in Gambling Addiction | Psychiatry
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Frontiers The Role of Prospection in Steep Temporal Reward Discounting in Gambling Addiction Psychiatry You can login by using one of your existing accounts.
We will be provided with an authorization token please note: passwords are not shared with us and will sync your accounts for you.
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Recent studies indicated that enhanced episodic future thinking EFT results in less impulsive TD in healthy controls HCs.
In a separate line of research, it has been suggested that non-linearities in time perception might contribute to reward devaluation during inter-temporal choice.
Therefore, in addition to deficits in valuation processes and executive control, impairments in EFT and non-linearities in time perception have been hypothesized to contribute to steep TD in addiction.
In this study, we explore such a potential association of impairments in EFT and time perception with steep TD in PG.
We investigated 20 PGs and 20 matched HCs.
TD was assessed via a standard computerized binary choice task.
EFT was measured using a variation of the Autobiographical Memory Interview by Levine et al.
Time perception was assessed with a novel task, utilizing a non-linear rating procedure via circle-size adjustments.
Groups did not differ in baseline EFT.
In both groups, a power law accounted time perception best, and the degree of non-linearity in time perception correlated with discounting across groups.
Our findings speak against the idea that steep TD in PG is due to a skewed perception of time or impairments in EFT, at least under the present task conditions.
The lack of overall group differences in EFT does not rule out the possibility of more complex interactions of EFT and decision-making.
These interactions might be diminished in pathological gambling or addiction more generally, when other task configurations are used.
Introduction Throughout life, we are faced with numerous choices between tempting immediate rewards and larger rewards that are associated with some delay.
Although there is considerable variability in TD in healthy humansaddiction in particular is reliably associated with steep reward discounting.
Patients suffering from substance-based addictions such as opioid, cocaineand nicotine addiction as well as those suffering from non-substance-based addictions such as pathological gambling PG show increased TD —.
Although steep TD is consistently observed in gambling addictionthe underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear.
For example, impairments in reward valuation processes and a lack of executive control might both contribute to steep discounting.
When faced with a decision between rewards, agents assign a subjective value to each option and compare options by comparing those values.
An impaired valuation process in PG could be one possible contributing factor for impulsive decisions and steep TD read more PG.
It is an ongoing debate whether value signals in, for example, the ventral striatum are decreased or increased in PG.
While the reward deficiency hypothesis states that addiction is associated with diminished striatal value signalsan idea supported by some studies —other studies have found the opposite effect .
PG has been associated with higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNFwhich regulates midbrain dopamine release .
This effect was not associated with addiction severity.
Monetary rewards might affect the reward system of PGs differently depending on the context and that the relation to non-monetary rewards is important.
Given these mixed results, it cannot be ruled out that steep TD in PG is caused by disturbances in valuation processes.
Executive control is thought to be crucial to resist tempting immediate rewards.
Thus, in addiction to deficits https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/documenting-gambling-losses-on-taxes.html reward valuation, executive control impairments might be an additional explanation for steep TD in PG.
There is evidence for impairments of executive control in PG in a Stroop task and changes of the related neuronal activity in the left ventro-medial prefrontal cortex were reported.
Nevertheless, these findings provide evidence that executive control in PG might be impaired in comparison to healthy control HC participants.
The concept of EFT is closely linked to episodic memory.
Recent cognitive neuroscience findings suggest that the same neuro-cognitive system consisting of medial temporal, parietal, and medial prefrontal networks supports projections of the self into the past and into the future —,—.
In accordance with this observation, AM and EFT are typically jointly impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, e.
However, given that steep discounting is critical to addiction psychopathology for example, it is also associated with clinical relevant parameters such as relapse —it is surprising that relatively little is known about potential AM and EFT impairments in addiction in general and PG in particular.
A recent study by Mercuri et al.
Alcohol and opioid addicts use shorter time horizons in an imagination task, but it is unclear if steep reward discounting in addiction is associated with impairments in EFT.
There is growing evidence that TD depends on and interacts with EFT.
EFT, as measured by episodic details generated in the AMI, predicts TD rates in healthy adolescents.
Moreover, it has been shown that TD and EFT interact both in terms of behavior and neuronal systems.
Cueing EFT during a TD task led to less impulsive decisions and this change in behavior was associated with coupling of neuronal signals in the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus.
Likewise, participants are more willing to wait for rewards after vividly imagining the consumption of a delayed rewardan effect mediated by the medial rostral prefrontal cortex.
However, also unspecific and relatively general imaginations about the future can lead to attenuated TD behavior.
Additionally, a recent study reported that patients suffering from hippocampal damage do not show attenuate discounting when cued with EFT information, unlike HC participants.
By contrast, TD behavior itself seems to be relatively unaffected by episodic amnesia, suggesting that EFT might modulate TD, but is not a necessary process for TD.
It has been suggested that EFT might affect TD not by modulation interactive gambling amendment bill 2020 values but by shortening the time horizon in general.
This might explain why even relatively unspecific EFT interventions can influence TD choice behavior .
It has been proposed that time perception is non-linear, which might contribute to the hyperbolic rather than linear or exponential shape of the discounting function, such that discounting is steeper over near vs.
There is some evidence for impairments in time perception in the range of seconds to minutes in addicts.
However, whether this extends to longer time spans relevant to discounting tasks e.
An altered subjective perception of time delays might at least partly explain the steeper TD in PG.
Thus, a reliable assessment of time perception is important.
We developed a novel task to assess the time perception of PGs in comparison to HC participants.
Given the separate evidence for interactions of TD with EFT and for steeper TD in addiction, it has been hypothesized that steeper TD, for example in gambling addiction, might, at least partly, be explained by EFT deficits.
In the present study, we directly explore such a potential association.
EFT was assessed using a modified version of the AMIand TD was assessed using standard decision tasks.
Additionally, we hypothesize that an altered subjective perception of time delays might contribute to steeper TD in addiction.
Here, we examine time perception in gambling addicts and healthy participants using a novel task.
We examined a group of gambling addicts and a group of HC participants matched for age, education, and smoking status.
We recruited all participants via advertisements on local internet bulletin boards.
Participants received 10 EUR per hour as a compensation for participation.
All participants provided written informed consent to participate.
The local Institutional review board Hamburg Board of Physicians approved all study procedures.
General Procedure Testing of EFT might induce a future-oriented mindset, which could affect TD.
To avoid such carry-over effects, TD was always tested first, followed by the time perception and circle-size rating procedure.
Then, EFT and AM were assessed before finally all questionnaire-based measures were completed.
Testing took about 3 h in total.
Depression is a common co-morbidity in pathological gambling and was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory.
Autobiographical Memory Interview for Past and Future Events We assessed AM and EFT using a procedure similar to a study by Race and colleaguesbased on the AMI.
For EFT, participants were asked to imagine five events that could happen one year from now.
To ensure comparability across participants, five short, unspecific cues were given e.
Describe in as much detail as you can what this event will be like.
Following each cue, the participant was asked to verbalize cue-related imagination for a maximum of 3 min.
Again, to ensure comparability across participants, these episodes were cued e.
Describe in as much detail as you can what this event was like.
Describe where and when this event happened, who was there, how you felt, and what you were thinking.
AM reports were followed by the same follow-up question as in the EFT condition.
All reports were recorded and transcribed.
Due to technical reasons, only a subset of article source instead of five AM events was recorded for one PG participant.
All other participants completed all measures.
In line with recent studies that applied the AMI,—reports were subsequently scored by one rater according to the AMI manual to can gambling bet crossword that episodic from semantic content.
Each informational detail was classified into one of several categories.
Details were rated as external if they fulfill the criteria of episodic details but belong to events other than the tested one.
To assess the reliability of the rating procedure, two more raters scored a subset of 60 events.
Time Perception Time perception was assessed using a novel task.
Based on the assumption that time perception might be non-linear, —we developed a task without an obvious linear structure e.
This might lead to more linear ratings because of the item arrangement and would be unrelated to delay perception.
just click for source therefore measured time perception via a manual adjustment of circle sizes.
The procedure included two tasks: a time perception task to assess subjective time perception and a circle-size rating task to control for potential non-linearities or individual differences in circle time perception.
Time Perception Task All tasks were implemented in the Presentation software package Neurobehavioral Systems, Inc.
On a square subsection of the computer screen, a delay was displayed in the lower part as a text see Figure.
Participants were then asked to adjust the size via arrow buttons of a centrally presented circle according to their subjective perception of the respective duration of the delay.
Pressing the right button enlarged the circle, pressing the left button shrank the circle.
Circle size could expand beyond the screen, but scaling stopped shortly before the circle filled the complete screen.
If the delay was perceived as short, participants were asked to shrink the circle.
If the delay was perceived as long, participants were asked to enlarge the circle.
A : Time perception task.
Participants are asked to adjust the circle size in accordance to their estimation of subjective waiting time.
Larger circles are indicating longer subjective waiting time.
B : 100% reference circle presented before the circle-size estimation task.
C : Circle-size estimation task.
Participants are asked to adjust circle sizes in reference to the presented 100% reference circle B.
The set of tested here was unknown to the participants in advance.
Delays were split into two symmetric testing sets, starting either with the shortest or the longest delay, separated by a 20 s break.
Note that ceiling effects might induce non-linearity in the ratings.
Ceiling effects could occur if short delay periods at the beginning of the testing session were rated as long large circle sizesleaving little space for longer delays.
To avoid this, a rating using more than 90% of the scale led to longer delays being excluded from further testing.
To avoid impulsive answers, proceeding to the next trial required a minimum of 10 s waiting period.
Circle-Size Estimation Task Perception of circle sizes might in itself be non-linear and may confound the rating of delays.
To address this issue, circle sizes were rated in a separate task.
First, a circle touching all screen boundaries was shown to the participant and defined as a size of 100%.
On each trial, participants were then asked to adjust a circle like the time perception task i have a gambling problem ukulele in the previous section.
However, instead of delays, target sizes in percent were shown, i.
Participants had to rate all sizes of the time perception sessions, as well as standard reference sizes at 20, 40, 60, 80%.
Again, the circle diameter was the dependent variable.
Ratings of the circle-rating test were used to transform time perception ratings and to clean time perception ratings from influences of circle-size perception.
Delay Discounting Delay discounting was tested with an adaptive task as described in previous studies .
Participants made repeated choices between a fixed smaller-but-sooner SS reward 20 EUR immediately and varying larger-but-later LL rewards.
Delays of LL rewards ranged from 1 day to 180 days in seven steps.
Amounts of LL rewards were adjusted via a staircase procedure to converge at participant-specific indifference https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/ats-meaning-in-gambling.html for all seven delays.
A second discounting task included trials by Kirby et al.
Cognitive Modeling Time Perception — Model Selection and Parameter Estimation Time perception ratings were analyzed individually for every participant.
All parameters were assumed to be constant within a participant.
For more detail of the Bayesian model, see Figure A.
All cognitive read article of time perception was done in a single participant fashion to allow for a participant-specific assessment of goodness of model fit.
DIC is a common criterion to estimate the goodness of model fit in Bayesian modeling, where smaller values indicate a better fit —.
A Graphical description of the Bayesian model fit for time perception ratings and circle-size ratings.
B Graphical description of the Bayesian model fit for temporal discounting.
Participant-specific β and k parameters are drawn from separate group distributions for HC and PG.
Shaded nodes indicate observed variables, while https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-forum-sports.html nodes are non-shaded.
Round nodes are continuous i have a gambling problem ukulele and squared nodes are discrete quantities.
Double-bordered nodes are fully determined by their parent nodes.
Circle-Rating — Model Selection and Parameter Estimation Here of circle sizes were modeled with the same procedure as the time perception ratings using the same model equations.
Again, posterior distributions of parameters were estimated using MCMC.
In accordance with prior research, we used a hyperbola to describe the decay of subjective value across time: where SV is the subjective value of the presented larger-but-later LL reward, A is the amount of the LL reward in Euro, k is the participant-specific discounting parameter, and D is the delay of the LL reward in days.
Second, the subjective value of the LL reward and the value of the 20 EUR immediate reward were passed to a softmax function to calculate choice probabilities for every trial: Here, p LL is the probability to choose the LL option on a given trial, SV LL and SV SS are the subjective values of the LL and smaller-but-sooner options, and β is the subject-specific decision noise parameter.
Participant-specific k and β parameters were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach with separate group-level distributions for healty control participants and pathological gamblers see Figure B for an overview of the estimation scheme.
Hierarchical Bayesian estimation has been shown to result in more reliable parameter estimates compared to maximum likelihood approaches by sharing information among participants during the sampling process and providing measures of uncertainty for every parameter .
We used empirical prior distributions taken from previous studies of TD in pathological gamblers and HCs .
Temporal Discounting — Task https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/new-york-sports-gambling-laws.html Kirby et al.
TD choices of the Kirby et al.
All particpants of the pathological gambling group differed significantly from HC in both gambling-related questionnaires, KFG and SOGS see Table.
PGs also had higher levels of depression BDI compared to HCs see Table.
Both groups did not differ with respect to age t 37.
Narratives were recorded, transcribed, and scored according to the AMI manual by Levine et al.
This was done separately for AM and EFT.
Groups did not differ on internal details sum scores EFT: t 26.
Groups did not differ on semantic detail scores EFT: t 30.
B Group difference in the number of internal details in the EFT condition.
HC: healthy control participants, PG: pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Time Perception Time perception was assessed using a circle-size adjustment task.
Participants were instructed to adjust circle sizes according to the perceived length of delays see Materials and Methods.
Time perception data were fit individually for each participant with a linear model, a power model, and a quadratic model using MCMC sampling see Materials and Methodsyielding a DIC value per participant and model.
Note that smaller DIC values indicate a better model fit.
DIC values were summed across participants for each model separately.
In both groups, a power law provided the best fit to the time perception rating data see Table.
Neither scaling parameter a or the curvature parameter b nor the precision parameter π differed between groups a: t 35.
Model selection results: deviance information criterion DIC values of single participant model fits were summed across participants with respect to group.
Circle-Size Rating To control for possible non-linear circle-size perception, an additional circle-size rating task was included.
Again, goodness of fit for linear, quadratic, and power functions to the circle-size ratings was quantified via summed DIC scores across participants for each model.
In both groups, a power law best accounted for circle-size perception check this out Table.
Scaling parameter a, curvature parameter b, and precision parameter π did not differ between groups a: t 36.
Time Perception Corrected by Circle-Size Rating The circle-size rating procedure revealed non-linear circle-size perception, that was, like the time perception data, best accounted for by a power law.
To account for a possible influence of circle-size perception on time perception ratings, the time perception ratings were corrected by first inverting the power law of the circle-size rating.
Both a and b were obtained by fitting a power function to the results of the circle-size estimation procedure described above.
We repeated the same model selection procedure linear, quadratic, power with the corrected time perception ratings.
Note that these final ratings are corrected for potential non-linearities in circle-size perception.
Again, a power model described the corrected time perception best see Table.
Scaling parameters a, curvature parameters b, and precision parameter π of the corrected time perceptions did not differ significantly between HCs and PGs a: t 37.
A Group difference in the exponent b of the power law time perception corrected by circle-size estimation.
HC, healthy control partici-pants; PG, pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Temporal Discounting A hierarchical estimation of single participant k parameters was performed separately for the husband gambling muslim TD task and the Kirby task.
Because the distribution of k parameters in the sample was skewed, we applied a log-transformation to all k parameters.
Therefore, we re-fited the combined datasets of both tasks for the remaining analyses.
Again, we used the median as a summary measure of the posterior distribution and log-transformed all parameters to account for skewed parameter distributions.
Although k parameters were numerically greater in the PG group see Figure Athe direct comparison was not significant t 36.
Thus, in the PG group, better EFT ability tended to be associated with less discounting.
A Group difference in the log-transformed k parameter of the temporal discounting task.
HC, healthy control participants, PG, pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Thus, PG was associated with steeper discounting, whereas higher BDI was associated with reduced discounting.
Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals of variables predicting log k temporal discounting parameters.
All variables were z-transformed before entering the regression analysis.
Based on recent findings of an association between prospection and discounting —we speculated that impulsive choice in PG i.
However, groups did not differ in baseline prospection i.
In both groups, time perception was best accounted by a power law, and the degree of non-linearity in time perception correlated with temporal discounting across groups.
In line with the conceptual framework of constructive episodic simulationi have a gambling problem ukulele consistent with previous findings, episodic future thinking EFT was highly correlated with autobiographical memory AM in pathological gamblers PGs and healthy control participants HCs alike.
Neither EFT nor AM differed between groups, and neither correlated with addiction severity in the PG group.
Psychiatric disorders such as autismpost-traumatic stress disorderand schizophrenia have been associated with changes in EFT.
We hypothesized that impulsive choice behavior in addiction and PG could be in part explained by less detailed imaginations of the future.
The present study suggests that PG may not be associated with similar impairments.
Of note, PG was taken as a model for human addiction that is not confounded by effects of neuro-toxic substances .
A recent study by Mercuri et al.
These memory impairments might impact EFT as well.
Across groups, more vivid EFT was not associated with reduced TD.
However, a greater number of EFT details tended to be associated with less impulsive TD in PGs.
In a previous study using a very similar approach, individual differences in EFT predicted discounting behavior in a sample of healthy adolescents after controlling for questionnaire-based impulsivity, intelligence, development, autobiographic memory, and semantic future details.
This finding suggests a specific impact of future event imaginations on future decision-making in healthy adolescents.
Although the regression coefficient for EFT was not significantly different from zero, it was overall negative as in the previous study.
This previous finding provides evidence for a relation of vivid EFT and shallow TD, which could not be replicated in the present sample of click here adults.
Future studies with larger samples are required to explore how AMI-based prospection measures relate to discounting behavior in healthy adults.
Furthermore, it remains unclear why the association between discounting and EFT appeared to be more pronounced in PGs than HCs.
Although the present sample size precludes us from investigating PG subtypes, one could speculate that this subtype that is associated with feelings of enhancement, could lead to more extensive narrations, which might mask other effects in the present study.
Valuation signals of immediate and delayed rewards have been observed in the ventral striatum and ventro-medial prefrontal cortexwhile the specific changes of valuation signals in the ventral striatum in PG are still debated —.
Growing evidence supports the idea that vivid EFT can attenuate TD under some conditions —.
Prefrontal—medio-temporal interactions have been identified to support these changes in TD behavior .
The present results of our study are not in line with the hypothesis that steep TD in PG might be due to attenuated EFT.
Moreover, if anything, PGs showed numerically greater internal details scores than controls.
Since the primary aim of the present study was an assessment of baseline EFT capabilities in PG, EFT and TD were tested in two separate tasks.
However, the lack of overall group differences in EFT does not rule out the possibility that EFT—TD interactions might be diminished in PG under different task conditions.
For example, it is unclear if PGs show effects of episodic tagging cueing during discounting, which have been repeatedly shown in HCs —.
Such beneficial effects of EFT on TD would be of interest for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for PG.
Since the present results suggest that EFT is not generally impaired in PG, this might be an interesting avenue for future research.
We applied a novel task, utilizing a non-linear rating procedure via circle-size adjustments.
This enabled us to disentangle general circle-size perception from delay perception.
Scaling and curvature parameters of the power law describing delay perception did not differ between groups and were not correlated with addiction severity in the PGs.
The finding of non-linear time perception in both groups suggests that TD differences between HCs and PGs are unlikely to be attributable to differences in delay perception.
Additionally, we explored whether steep TD in PGs might be in part related to shortened time horizons.
In line with prior research, attenuated non-linear time perception was associated with steeper discounting across both groups .
Although this effect appeared to be driven by a stronger effect in the PG group, the correlations did not differ significantly.
Steeper TD in PG can therefore also not be explained by shortened time perception.
Temporal discounting behavior was assessed using two tasks: first, an adaptive task using a staircase procedure was applied.
Second, a standard task by Kirby et al.
The group difference was absent in a direct comparison of k parameters between groups in a t-test, likely due to masking effects of the covariates, which are removed in the regression analysis.
Higher BDI scores were associated with lower k parameters while PG group status was associated with higher k parameters.
Similar to PG, which is consistently associated with impulsive TD —major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder both have been associated with steeper discounting — and it has been speculated that this might reflect a state of hopelessness .
Depression is a common co-morbidity in PG and might differentially affect reward processing in PG.
A recent study by Fauth-Bühler et al.
This finding indicates a possible interaction of depression and PG in reward processing on a neuronal level.
However, these interactions might not always manifest in behavioral differences.
In our study, only PG and depression significantly influenced discounting behavior.
However, the directions of effect were opposed, as PG intensified TD and depression attenuated TD.
Specific TD testing conditions might have affected our results.
All TD rewards in our study were hypothetical.
It has been shown that real rewards lead to attenuated discounting behavior —.
How this effect might interact with PG is unclear, but earlier studies found group differences between HC and PG using potentially real rewards .
Additionally, the role of reward magnitudes remains to be explored, both with respect to effects in PG and with respect to EFT modulations.
Taken together, EFT and AM were highly correlated in both healthy control participants and pathological gamblers, and neither process was impaired in the pathological gamblers.
Likewise, we found no evidence for changes in anticipatory delay perception in pathological gambling.
These findings suggest that steep discounting in pathological gambling is i have a gambling problem ukulele to be due to impairments in general prospection abilities or due to skewed representations of time delays.
If anything, gamblers produced more future event details than controls.
Interactions between EFT and TD remain an important issue for future research in addiction neuroscience and psychiatry.
Further studies are required to assess whether the present findings extend to substance-use disorders and other disorders of impulse control that are characterized by impulsive and short-sighted behavior.
Author Contributions AW, UB, and JP conceived and designed the study.
AW acquired the data.
AW and UB analyzed the data.
AW and JP wrote the manuscript.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Frontiers | The Role of Prospection in Steep Temporal Reward Discounting in Gambling Addiction | Psychiatry
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Frontiers The Role of Prospection in Steep Temporal Reward Discounting in Gambling Addiction Psychiatry You can login by using one of your existing accounts.
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Recent studies indicated that enhanced episodic future thinking EFT results in less impulsive TD in healthy controls HCs.
In a separate line of research, it has been suggested that non-linearities in time perception might contribute to reward devaluation during inter-temporal choice.
Therefore, in addition to deficits in valuation processes and executive control, impairments in EFT and non-linearities in time perception have been hypothesized to contribute to steep TD in addiction.
In this study, we explore such a potential association of impairments click here EFT and time perception with steep TD in PG.
We investigated 20 PGs and 20 matched HCs.
TD was assessed via a standard computerized binary choice task.
EFT was measured using a variation of the Autobiographical Memory Interview by Levine et al.
Time perception was assessed with a novel task, utilizing a non-linear rating procedure via circle-size adjustments.
Groups did not differ in baseline EFT.
In both groups, a power law accounted time perception best, and the degree of non-linearity in time perception correlated with discounting across groups.
Our findings speak against the idea that steep TD in PG is due to a skewed perception of time or impairments in EFT, at least under the present task conditions.
The lack of overall group differences in EFT does not rule out the possibility of more complex interactions of EFT and decision-making.
These interactions might be diminished in pathological gambling or addiction more generally, when other task configurations are used.
Introduction Throughout life, we are faced with numerous choices between tempting immediate rewards and larger rewards that are associated with some delay.
Although there is considerable variability in TD in healthy humansaddiction in particular is reliably associated with steep reward discounting.
Patients suffering from substance-based addictions such as opioid, cocaineand nicotine addiction as well as those suffering from non-substance-based addictions such as pathological gambling PG show increased TD —.
Although steep TD is consistently observed in gambling addictionthe underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear.
For example, impairments in reward valuation processes and a lack of executive control might both contribute to steep discounting.
When faced with a decision between rewards, agents assign a subjective value to each option and compare options by comparing those values.
An impaired valuation process in PG could be one possible contributing factor for impulsive decisions and steep TD in PG.
It is an ongoing debate whether value signals in, for example, source ventral striatum are decreased or increased in PG.
While the reward deficiency hypothesis states that addiction is associated with diminished striatal value signalsan idea supported by some studies —other studies have found the opposite effect .
PG has been associated with higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNFwhich regulates midbrain dopamine release .
This effect was not associated with addiction severity.
Monetary rewards might affect the reward system of PGs differently depending on the context and that the relation to non-monetary rewards is important.
Given these mixed results, it cannot be ruled out that steep TD in PG is caused by disturbances in valuation processes.
Executive control is thought to be crucial to resist tempting immediate rewards.
Thus, in addiction to deficits in reward valuation, executive control impairments might be an additional explanation for steep TD in PG.
There is evidence for impairments of executive control in PG in a Stroop task and changes of the related neuronal activity in the left ventro-medial prefrontal cortex were reported.
Nevertheless, these findings provide evidence that executive control in PG might be impaired in comparison to healthy control HC participants.
The concept of EFT is closely linked to episodic memory.
Recent cognitive neuroscience findings suggest that the same neuro-cognitive system consisting of medial temporal, parietal, and medial prefrontal networks supports projections of the self into the past and into the future —,—.
In accordance with this observation, AM and EFT are typically jointly impaired in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, e.
However, given that steep discounting is critical to addiction psychopathology for example, it is also associated with clinical relevant parameters such as relapse —it is surprising that relatively little is known about potential AM and EFT impairments in addiction in general and PG in particular.
A recent study by Mercuri et al.
click at this page and opioid addicts use shorter time horizons in an imagination task, but it is unclear if steep reward discounting in addiction is associated with impairments in EFT.
There is growing evidence that TD depends on and interacts with EFT.
EFT, as measured by episodic details generated in the AMI, predicts TD rates in healthy adolescents.
Moreover, it has been shown that TD and EFT interact both in terms of behavior and neuronal systems.
Cueing EFT during a TD task led to less impulsive decisions and this change in behavior was associated with coupling of neuronal signals in the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus.
Likewise, participants are more willing to wait for rewards after vividly imagining the consumption of a delayed rewardan effect mediated by the medial rostral prefrontal cortex.
However, also unspecific and relatively general imaginations about the future can lead to attenuated TD behavior.
Additionally, a recent study reported that patients suffering from hippocampal damage do not show attenuate discounting when cued with EFT information, unlike I have a gambling problem ukulele participants.
By contrast, TD behavior itself seems to be relatively unaffected by episodic amnesia, suggesting that EFT might modulate TD, but is not a necessary process for TD.
It has been suggested that EFT might affect TD not by modulation option values but by shortening the time horizon in general.
This might explain why even relatively unspecific EFT interventions can influence TD choice behavior .
It has been proposed that time perception is non-linear, which might contribute to the hyperbolic rather than linear or exponential shape of the discounting function, such that discounting is steeper over near vs.
There is some evidence for impairments in time perception in the range of seconds to minutes in addicts.
However, whether this extends to longer time spans relevant to discounting tasks e.
An altered subjective perception of time delays check this out at least partly explain the steeper TD in PG.
Thus, a reliable assessment of time perception is important.
We developed a novel task to assess the time perception of PGs in comparison to HC participants.
Given the separate evidence for interactions of TD with EFT and for steeper TD in addiction, it has been hypothesized that steeper TD, for example in gambling addiction, might, at least partly, be explained by EFT deficits.
In the present study, we directly explore such a potential association.
EFT was assessed using a modified version of the AMIand TD was assessed using standard decision tasks.
Additionally, we hypothesize that an altered subjective perception of time delays might contribute to steeper TD in addiction.
Here, we examine time perception in gambling addicts and healthy participants using a novel task.
We examined a group of gambling addicts and a group of HC participants matched for age, education, and smoking status.
We recruited all participants via advertisements on local internet bulletin boards.
Participants received 10 EUR per hour as a compensation for participation.
All participants provided written informed consent to participate.
The local Institutional review board Hamburg Board of Physicians approved all study procedures.
General Procedure Testing of EFT might induce a future-oriented mindset, which could affect TD.
To avoid such carry-over effects, TD was always tested first, followed by the time perception and circle-size rating procedure.
Then, EFT and AM were assessed before finally all questionnaire-based measures were completed.
Testing took about 3 h pa tax gambling winnings total.
Depression is a common co-morbidity in pathological gambling and was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory.
Autobiographical Memory Interview for Past and Future Events We assessed AM and EFT using a procedure similar to a study by Race and colleaguesbased on the AMI.
For EFT, participants were asked to imagine five events that could happen one year from now.
To ensure comparability across participants, five short, unspecific cues were given e.
Describe in as much detail as you can what this event will be like.
Following each cue, the participant was asked to verbalize cue-related imagination for a maximum of 3 min.
Again, to ensure comparability across participants, these episodes were cued e.
Describe in as much detail as you can what this event was like.
Describe where and when this event happened, who was there, how you felt, and what you were thinking.
AM reports were followed by the same follow-up question as in the EFT condition.
All reports were recorded and transcribed.
Due to technical reasons, only a subset of two instead of five AM events was recorded for one PG participant.
All other participants completed all measures.
In line with recent studies that applied the AMI,—reports were subsequently scored by one rater according to the AMI manual to disentangle episodic from semantic content.
Each informational detail was classified into one of several categories.
Details were rated as external if they fulfill the criteria of episodic details but belong to events other than the tested one.
To assess the reliability of winning graton machines casino rating procedure, two more raters scored a subset of 60 events.
Time Perception Time perception was assessed using a novel task.
Based on the assumption that time perception might be non-linear, —we developed a task without an obvious linear structure e.
This might lead to more linear ratings because of the item arrangement and would be unrelated to delay perception.
We therefore measured time perception via a manual adjustment of circle sizes.
The procedure included two tasks: a time perception task to assess subjective time perception and a circle-size rating task to control for potential non-linearities or individual differences in circle time perception.
Time Perception Task All tasks https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/its-not-gambling-if-you-know-youre-going-to-win.html implemented in the Presentation software package Neurobehavioral Systems, Inc.
On a square subsection of the computer screen, a delay was displayed in the lower part as a text see Figure.
Participants were then asked to adjust the size via arrow buttons of a centrally presented circle according to their subjective perception of the respective duration of the delay.
Pressing the right button enlarged the circle, pressing the left button shrank the circle.
Circle size could expand beyond the screen, but scaling stopped shortly before the circle filled the complete screen.
If the delay was perceived as short, participants were asked to shrink the circle.
If the delay was perceived as long, participants were asked to enlarge the circle.
A : Time perception task.
Participants are asked to adjust the circle size i have a gambling problem ukulele accordance to their estimation of subjective waiting time.
Larger circles are indicating longer subjective waiting time.
B : 100% reference circle presented before the circle-size estimation task.
C : Circle-size estimation task.
Participants are asked to adjust circle sizes in reference to the presented 100% reference circle B.
We tested 18 delays, ranging from 1 day to 190 days.
The set of tested delays was unknown to the participants in advance.
Delays were split into two symmetric testing sets, starting either with the shortest or the longest delay, separated by a 20 s break.
Note that ceiling effects might induce non-linearity in the ratings.
Ceiling effects could occur if short delay periods at the beginning of the testing session were rated as long large circle sizesleaving little space for longer delays.
To avoid this, a rating using more than 90% of the scale led to longer delays being excluded from further testing.
To avoid impulsive answers, proceeding to the next trial required a minimum of 10 s waiting period.
Circle-Size Estimation Task Perception of circle sizes might in itself be non-linear and may confound the rating of delays.
To address this issue, circle sizes were rated in a separate task.
First, a circle touching all screen boundaries was shown to the participant and defined as a size of 100%.
On each trial, participants were then asked to adjust a circle like the time perception task described in the previous section.
However, instead of delays, target sizes in percent were shown, i.
Participants had to rate all sizes of the time perception sessions, as well as standard reference sizes at 20, 40, 60, 80%.
Again, the circle diameter was the dependent variable.
Ratings of the circle-rating test were used to transform time perception ratings and to clean time perception ratings from influences of circle-size perception.
Delay Discounting Delay discounting was tested with an adaptive task as described in previous studies .
Participants made repeated https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-market-in-europe-2020.html between a fixed smaller-but-sooner SS reward 20 EUR immediately and varying larger-but-later LL rewards.
Delays of LL rewards ranged from 1 day to 180 days in seven steps.
Amounts of LL rewards were adjusted via a staircase procedure to converge at participant-specific indifference points for all seven delays.
A second discounting task included trials by Kirby et al.
Cognitive Modeling Time Perception — Model Selection and Parameter Estimation Time perception ratings were analyzed individually for every participant.
All parameters were assumed to be constant within a participant.
For more detail of the Bayesian model, see Figure A.
All cognitive modeling of time perception was done in a single participant fashion to allow for a participant-specific assessment of goodness of model fit.
texas illegal gambling is a common criterion to estimate the goodness of model fit in Bayesian modeling, where smaller values indicate a better fit —.
A Graphical description of the Bayesian model fit for time perception ratings and circle-size ratings.
B Link description of the Bayesian model fit for i have a gambling problem ukulele discounting.
Participant-specific β and k parameters are drawn from separate group distributions for HC and PG.
Shaded nodes indicate observed variables, while latent nodes are non-shaded.
Round nodes are continuous quantities and squared nodes are discrete quantities.
Double-bordered nodes are fully determined by their parent nodes.
Circle-Rating — Model Selection and Parameter Estimation Ratings of circle sizes were modeled with the same procedure as the time perception ratings using the same model equations.
Again, posterior distributions of parameters were estimated using MCMC.
In accordance with prior research, we used a hyperbola to describe the decay of subjective value across time: where SV is the subjective value of the presented larger-but-later LL reward, A is the amount of the LL reward in Euro, k is the participant-specific discounting parameter, and D is the delay of the LL reward in days.
Second, the subjective value of the LL reward and the value of the 20 EUR immediate reward were passed to a softmax function to calculate choice probabilities for every trial: Here, p LL is the probability to choose the LL option on a given trial, SV LL and SV SS are the subjective values of the LL and smaller-but-sooner options, and β is the subject-specific decision noise parameter.
Participant-specific k and β parameters were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach with separate group-level distributions for healty control participants and pathological gamblers see Figure B for an i have a gambling problem ukulele of the estimation scheme.
Hierarchical Bayesian estimation has been shown to result in more reliable parameter estimates compared to maximum likelihood approaches by sharing information among participants during the sampling process and providing measures of uncertainty for every parameter .
We used empirical prior distributions taken from previous studies of TD in pathological gamblers and HCs .
Temporal Discounting — Task by Kirby et al.
TD choices of the Kirby et al.
All particpants of the pathological gambling group differed significantly from HC in both gambling-related questionnaires, KFG and SOGS see Table.
PGs share female gambling dog names uk the had higher levels of depression BDI compared to HCs see Table.
Both groups did not differ with respect to age t 37.
Narratives were recorded, transcribed, and scored according to the AMI manual by Levine et al.
This was done separately for AM and EFT.
Groups did not differ on internal details sum scores EFT: t 26.
Groups did here differ on semantic detail scores EFT: t 30.
B Group difference in the number of internal details in the EFT condition.
HC: healthy control participants, PG: pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Time Perception Time perception was assessed using a circle-size adjustment task.
Participants were instructed to adjust circle sizes according to the perceived length management gambling money delays see Materials and Methods.
Time perception data were fit individually for each participant with a linear model, a power model, and a quadratic model using MCMC sampling see Materials and Methodsyielding a DIC value per participant and model.
Note that smaller DIC values indicate a better model fit.
DIC values were summed across participants for each model separately.
In both groups, a power law provided the best fit to the time perception rating data see Table.
Neither scaling parameter a or the curvature parameter b nor the precision parameter π differed between groups a: t 35.
Model selection results: deviance information criterion DIC values of single participant model fits were summed across participants with respect to group.
Circle-Size Rating To control for possible non-linear circle-size perception, an additional circle-size rating task was included.
Again, goodness of fit for linear, quadratic, and power functions to the circle-size ratings was quantified via summed DIC scores across participants for each model.
In both groups, a power law best accounted for circle-size perception see Table.
Scaling parameter a, curvature parameter b, and precision parameter π did not differ between groups a: t 36.
Time Perception Corrected by Circle-Size Rating The circle-size rating procedure revealed non-linear circle-size perception, that was, like the time perception data, best accounted for by a power law.
To account for a possible influence of circle-size perception on time perception ratings, the time perception ratings were corrected by first inverting the power law of the circle-size rating.
We repeated the same model selection procedure linear, quadratic, power with the corrected time perception ratings.
Note that these final ratings are corrected for potential non-linearities in circle-size perception.
Again, a power model described the corrected time perception best see Table.
Scaling parameters a, curvature parameters b, and precision parameter π of the corrected time perceptions did not differ significantly between HCs and PGs a: t 37.
A Group difference in the exponent b of the power law time perception corrected by circle-size estimation.
HC, healthy control partici-pants; PG, pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Temporal Discounting A hierarchical estimation of single participant k parameters was performed separately for the adaptive TD task and the Kirby task.
Because the distribution of k parameters in the sample was skewed, we applied a log-transformation to all k parameters.
Therefore, we re-fited the combined datasets of both tasks for the remaining analyses.
Again, we used the median as a summary measure of the posterior distribution and log-transformed all parameters to account for skewed parameter visit web page />Although k parameters were numerically greater in the PG group see Figure Athe direct comparison was not significant t 36.
Thus, in the PG group, better I have a gambling problem ukulele ability tended to be associated with less discounting.
A Group difference in the log-transformed k parameter of the temporal discounting task.
HC, healthy control participants, PG, pathological gamblers.
Error bars are indicating SEM.
Thus, PG was associated with steeper discounting, whereas higher BDI was associated with reduced discounting.
Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals of variables predicting log k temporal discounting parameters.
All variables were z-transformed before entering the regression analysis.
Based on recent findings of an association between prospection and discounting —we speculated that impulsive choice in PG i.
However, groups did not differ in baseline prospection i.
In both groups, time perception was best accounted by a power law, and the degree of non-linearity in time perception correlated with temporal discounting across groups.
In line with the conceptual framework of constructive episodic simulationand consistent with previous findings, episodic future thinking EFT was highly correlated with autobiographical memory AM in pathological gamblers PGs and healthy control participants HCs alike.
Neither EFT nor AM differed between groups, and neither correlated with addiction severity in the PG group.
Psychiatric disorders such as autismpost-traumatic stress disorderand schizophrenia have been associated with changes in EFT.
We hypothesized that impulsive choice behavior in addiction and PG could be in part explained by less detailed imaginations of the future.
The present study suggests that PG may not be associated with similar impairments.
Of note, PG was taken as a model for human addiction that is not confounded by effects of neuro-toxic substances .
A recent study by Mercuri et al.
These memory impairments might impact EFT as well.
Across groups, more vivid EFT was not associated with reduced TD.
However, a greater number of EFT details tended to be associated with less impulsive TD in PGs.
In a previous study using a very similar approach, individual differences in EFT predicted discounting behavior in a sample of healthy adolescents after controlling for questionnaire-based impulsivity, intelligence, development, autobiographic memory, and semantic future details.
This finding suggests a specific impact of future gambling ages in america imaginations on future decision-making in healthy adolescents.
Although the regression coefficient for EFT was not significantly different from zero, it was overall negative as in the previous study.
This previous finding provides evidence for a relation of vivid EFT and shallow TD, which could not be replicated in the present sample of healthy adults.
Future studies with larger samples are required to explore how AMI-based prospection measures relate to discounting behavior in healthy adults.
Furthermore, it remains unclear why the association between discounting and EFT appeared to be more pronounced in PGs than HCs.
Although the present sample size precludes us from investigating PG subtypes, one could speculate that this subtype that is associated with feelings of enhancement, could lead to more extensive narrations, which might mask other effects in the present study.
Valuation signals of immediate and delayed rewards have been observed in the ventral striatum and ventro-medial prefrontal cortexwhile the specific changes of valuation signals in the ventral striatum in PG are still debated —.
Growing evidence supports the idea that vivid EFT can attenuate TD under some conditions —.
Prefrontal—medio-temporal interactions have been identified to support these changes in TD behavior .
The present results of our study are not in line with the hypothesis that steep TD in PG might be due to attenuated EFT.
Moreover, if anything, PGs showed numerically greater internal details scores than controls.
Since the primary aim of the present study was an assessment of baseline EFT capabilities in PG, EFT and TD were tested in two separate tasks.
However, the lack of overall group differences in EFT does not rule out the possibility that EFT—TD interactions might be diminished in PG under different task conditions.
For example, it is unclear if PGs show effects of episodic tagging cueing during discounting, which have been repeatedly shown in HCs —.
Such beneficial effects of EFT on TD would be of interest for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for PG.
Since the present results suggest that EFT is not generally impaired in PG, this might be an interesting avenue for future research.
We applied a novel task, utilizing a non-linear rating procedure via circle-size adjustments.
This enabled us to disentangle general circle-size perception from delay perception.
Scaling and curvature parameters of the power law describing delay perception did not differ between groups and were not correlated with addiction severity in the PGs.
The finding of non-linear time perception in both groups suggests that TD differences between HCs and PGs are unlikely to be attributable click at this page differences in delay perception.
Additionally, we explored whether steep TD in PGs might be in part related to shortened time horizons.
In line with prior research, attenuated non-linear time perception was associated with steeper discounting across both groups .
Although this effect appeared to be driven by a stronger effect in the PG group, the correlations did not differ significantly.
Steeper TD in PG can therefore also not be explained by shortened time perception.
Temporal discounting behavior was assessed using two tasks: first, an adaptive task using a staircase procedure was applied.
Second, a standard task by Kirby et al.
The group difference was absent in a direct comparison of k parameters between groups in a t-test, likely due to masking effects of the covariates, which are removed in the regression analysis.
Higher BDI scores were associated with lower k parameters while PG group status was associated with higher k parameters.
Similar to PG, which is consistently associated with suggest gambling age laws in iowa are TD —major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder both have been associated with steeper discounting — and it has been speculated that this might reflect a state of hopelessness .
Depression is a common co-morbidity in PG and might differentially affect reward processing in PG.
A recent study by Fauth-Bühler et al.
This finding indicates a possible interaction of depression and PG in reward processing on a neuronal level.
However, these interactions might not always manifest in behavioral differences.
In our study, only PG and depression significantly influenced discounting behavior.
However, the directions of effect were opposed, as PG intensified TD and depression attenuated TD.
Specific TD testing conditions might have affected https://allo-hebergeur.com/gambling/gambling-winnings-fannie-mae.html results.
All TD rewards in our study were hypothetical.
It has been shown that real rewards lead to attenuated discounting behavior —.
How this effect might interact with PG is unclear, but earlier studies found group differences between HC and PG using potentially real rewards .
Additionally, the role of reward magnitudes remains to be explored, both with respect to effects in PG i have a gambling problem ukulele with respect to EFT modulations.
Taken together, EFT and AM were highly correlated in both healthy control participants and pathological gamblers, and neither process was impaired in the pathological gamblers.
Likewise, we found no evidence for changes in anticipatory delay perception in pathological gambling.
These findings suggest that steep discounting gambling disorder define pathological gambling is unlikely to be due to impairments in general prospection abilities or due to skewed representations of time delays.
If anything, gamblers produced more future event details than controls.
Interactions between EFT and TD remain an important issue for future research in addiction neuroscience and psychiatry.
Further studies are required to assess whether the present findings extend to substance-use disorders and other disorders of impulse control that are characterized by impulsive and short-sighted behavior.
Author Contributions AW, UB, and JP conceived and designed the study.
AW acquired the data.
AW and UB analyzed the data.
AW and JP wrote the manuscript.
Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the read more was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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